Mammography (Breast Imaging) is a specific variety of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays to find cancer early—before women encounter symptoms—when it's most treatable. Mammography plays a central part in the early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before you or your physician can feel them. The American Medical Association (AMA) and also the American College of Radiology (ACR) suggest annual mammograms for women over forty. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) adds that women who have a personal or family history of breast cancer ought to seek advice from their doctor concerning when they should begin screening.
Cardiac Imaging (Cardiac Radiology) refers to non-invasive imaging of the heart using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or nuclear medicine (NM) imaging with PET or SPECT. These cardiac techniques are otherwise mentioned as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, Cardiac CT, cardiac PET and cardiac SPECT including myocardial perfusion imaging.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures. Chest radiographs are the most common film taken in medicine. Like all ways of radiography, chest radiography employs ionizing radiation within the kind of X-rays to get images of the chest. The mean radiation dose to an adult from a chest radiograph is around 0.02 mSv (2 mrem) for a front view (PA, or posteroanterior) and 0.08 mSv (8 mrem) for a side view (LL, or latero-lateral). Together, this corresponds to a background radiation equivalent time of around ten days.
Emergency Radiology is a sub-specialty of radiology that specializes in the diagnosis of the acutely ill or traumatized patient in the Emergency Department setting. By utilizing multiple imaging modalities, together with multi-detector CT, MRI, Ultrasound and X-ray, emergency radiology plays a significant role within the timely diagnosis and management of emergency patients from head to toe. Emergency radiologists use a range of imaging techniques to diagnose like Body trauma, Heart and lung (thoracic) trauma and conditions, Injuries and diseases of the central nervous system, Injuries and diseases of the head and neck, Trauma to the spine and upper and lower limbs, Emergency obstetrics and gynaecology & Vein (vascular) and artery (aortic) malfunction.
Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology that focuses on diagnosis of abnormalities of the head, brain, spine, and neck employing a range of neuroimaging techniques. Neuroradiologists interpret neuroimages of the brain, spine and spinal cord, face and neck and peripheral nerves to diagnose strokes, tumors, genetic conditions, aneurysms, Alzheimer’s disease and many different neurological conditions. They also work with a multi-disciplinary team, including neurosurgeons, in instances of traumatic vascular injury to the head and neck.
Nuclear Medicine Radiology (Nuclear Radiology)
Nuclear medicine is a subspecialty of radiology that involves the employment of radioactive medication (radiopharmaceuticals) to diagnose and treat a disease. These radioactive materials are usually injected into a vein, but are sometimes swallowed or inhaled. A gamma camera tracks the movement of the radiopharmaceuticals from outside the body by detection of the gamma radiation emitted by the medication. Depending on the type of test, two or three dimensional images of the internal body can be created. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, solid tumours and bone metastases.
Paediatric (or pediatric) radiology is a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology focused on children, from babies through to adolescents and young adults. Adolescents are referred to paediatric radiologists because developing bodies are more susceptible to the adverse effects of radiation than are adults of equivalent size. Paediatric radiologists have specialised knowledge of the illnesses and medical conditions of infants, children and young people. They can quickly and accurately diagnose conditions such as appendicitis and pneumonia, the effects of trauma, or if a child may have a form of cancer. The use of imaging techniques with children can prevent the need for exploratory surgery.
Radiation oncology uses radiation (radiation therapy) to treat cancer and other non-malignant diseases. It is a safe and effective treatment for many cancers, with radiation therapy involved in the successful treatment of 40% of all patients cured of cancer worldwide. Radiation therapy can be applied to cancers anywhere in the body. It kills or damages cancer cells, preventing them growing, multiplying and spreading. Cancerous cells are more susceptible than healthy cells to the effects of radiation. Several types of high energy radiation are used in treatment, including:
High energy X-rays
Musculoskeletal imaging may be a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology that involves ordering and decoding medical images of bones, joints and associated soft tissues and diagnosing injuries and illness. Musculoskeletal problems are often the results of varied circumstances, ranging from work accidents and sports injuries to genetics and lifestyle selections. Some of these problems include osteoarthritis of the knee, osteoporosis of the bones, and different other joint or muscle problems.
Interventional radiology is a medical specialization that involves performing a range of imaging procedures to obtain images of the inside of the body. The interventional radiologist rigorously interprets these images to diagnose injury and disease, and to perform a variety of interventional medical procedures. The interventional radiologist uses imaging techniques such as X-rays, MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, fluoroscopy (an X-ray procedure that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion), CT (computed tomography) scans and ultrasounds. Interventional radiologists perform a broad range of procedures such as treating tumors, taking organ biopsies or placing stents by inserting tiny instruments and thin plastic tubes (catheters) into the body via an artery or vein. The images are used to guide the catheters and instruments to the exact area where the procedure or treatment is to be performed. This reduces the need for traditional (open) or keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery as treatment can be given via a small plastic tube of the size of a straw. Continuing advances in technology mean the range of conditions that can be treated by interventional radiology is continuing to expand.